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Every atom is an organized structure whose main parts are comprise of particles of positive electricity(protons) and nagative electricity(Electrons).When we talk of different atoms,we simply mean that the two atoms are made of different amount of positive & negative.An example picture shows a carbon atom’s structure.All atoms has equal number of protons and electrons creating a balanced structure.

In a way to identify the atoms, each is associated with a number which indicates the number of protons (hense planatory electrons too) For example, The hydrogenatom(H) is #1; the carbon(C) is #6, the copper(Cu) is 29; the silver atom(Ag) is 47.

A force of repulsion exists between each orbiting electron and acts in all directions,thus keeping the planetary electrons in their positions in orbits.


Why electrons circuling do not fly away due to centrifugal force? The general concept is that the electrons are held in their orbits against pull of cetrifugal force by the electrical force of attaction between the protons in the nucleus and the orbiting electrons. The electrical force is manifested as a mechanical force,it pulls the electrons inwards towards the nucleus while the centrifugal force is pulling the electron outwards away from center. The two forces are in exact balance; therefore the electrons do not leave the atom nor do they “fall” or “fly away”.

Metal & non-metals: Nonmetallic materials

They are made of atoms which are in electrical balance, i.e. having equal number of electrons & protons.Thy are electrically neutral atoms.

Protons in the nucleus of the atom of a metal hold onto all but one of the normal complement of electron. Means it has an electron which is “free” and can be pushed or taken away by other forces.

Everything is balanced!

The free electrons wander among the atoms of the metal throughout all parts of the metal in random manner moving in one direction as in another. Every atom which has lost an electron now has a preponderance of positive charge, that amounting to one proton. These atoms are called positive irons.

For every positive ion in the metal, there is a free electron so that balance between positive and negative electricity is maintained and the metal as whole remains electrically neutral.

Static Electricity & Electrostatics

The name given to electricity at REST is Static Electricity, and broad subject of charging and discharging (the behavior of static electricity) is called electrostatics.

Do not confuse with electrically neutral object and electricity at rest!  simple example is a Capacitor,made of two metal plates. When charged by one or other means, stores the electrical energy and release it when needed. Un-charged capacitor is electrically neutral device but charged one is called Electricity at rest.