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Abbreviations are short codes used in morse and teleptype communications. They reduce time for the operator and hense increase speed of operator to operator corrections/operations.

Following abbreviations are recoomanded for Amateur Station Operatorís Examination in India.

AA

ALL AFTER

AB

ALL BEFORE

AR

END OF TRANSMISSION

AS

WAITING PERIOD

BT

Signal mark seperation

C

Yes or Affirmative

CFM

Confirm or I confirm

CL

I am closing my station

VA

End of work

CQ

General call to all stations

PSE

Please

DE

From ....  (or THIS IS )

K

Invitation to transmit

KN

Invitation to transmit. Others to stay away please

NIL

I have nothing to send you

OK

We agree

R

Received

TU

Tank you

WA

Word after

WB

Word before

WX

Weather report